Area 51

Area 51 is the common name of a highly classified United States Air Force (USAF) facility located within the Nevada Test and Training Range. The facility is officially called Homey Airport (KXTA) or Groom Lake, named after the salt flat situated next to its airfield. Details of the facility’s operations are not publicly known, but the USAF says that it is an open training range,and it most likely supports the development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems.The USAF acquired the site in 1955, primarily for flight testing the Lockheed U-2 aircraft.

The intense secrecy surrounding the base has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy theories and a central component of unidentified flying object (UFO) folklore.[4][5]The base has never been declared a secret base, but all research and occurrences in Area 51 are Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information (TS/SCI).The CIA publicly acknowledged the existence of the base for the first time on June 25, 2013, following a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request filed in 2005, and they declassified documents detailing the history and purpose of Area 51.

Area 51 is located in the southern portion of Nevada in the western United States, 83 miles (134 km) north-northwest of Las Vegas. The surrounding area is a popular tourist destination, including the small town of Rachel on the “Extraterrestrial Highway“.


The original rectangular base of 6 by 10 miles (9.7 by 16.1 km) is now part of the so-called “Groom box”, a rectangular area measuring 23 by 25 miles (37 by 40 km), of restricted airspace. The area is connected to the internal Nevada Test Site (NTS) road network, with paved roads leading south to Mercury and west to Yucca Flat. Leading northeast from the lake, the wide and well-maintained Groom Lake Road runs through a pass in the Jumbled Hills. The road formerly led to mines in the Groom basin, but has been improved since their closure. Its winding course runs past a security checkpoint, but the restricted area around the base extends farther east. After leaving the restricted area, Groom Lake Road descends eastward to the floor of the Tikaboo Valley, passing the dirt-road entrances to several small ranches, before converging with State Route 375, the “Extraterrestrial Highway”,[7] south of Rachel.

Area 51 shares a border with the Yucca Flatregion of the Nevada Test Site, the location of 739 of the 928 nuclear tests conducted by the United States Department of Energy at NTS. The Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository is 44 miles (71 km) southwest of Groom Lake.

Groom lake

Groom Lake is a salt flat in Nevada used for runways of the Nellis Bombing Range Test Site airport (KXTA) on the north of the Area 51 USAF military installation. The lake at 4,409 ft (1,344 m) elevation is approximately 3.7 miles (6.0 km) from north to south and 3 miles (4.8 km) from east to west at its widest point. Located within the namesake Groom Lake Valley portion of the Tonopah Basin, the lake is 25 mi (40 km) south of Rachel, Nevada.


The origin of the name “Area 51” is unclear. It is believed to be from an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) numbering grid, although Area 51 is not part of this system; it is adjacent to Area 15. Another explanation is that 51 was used because it was unlikely that the AEC would use the number. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the correct names for the facility are Homey Airport (KXTA) and Groom Lake,though the name Area 51 was used in a CIA document from the Vietnam War.The facility has also been referred to as Dreamlandand Paradise Ranch,among other nicknames. The USAF public relations has referred to the facility as “an operating location near Groom Dry Lake”. The special use airspace around the field is referred to as Restricted Area 4808 North (R-4808N).

Lead and silver were discovered in the southern part of the Groom Range in 1864,and the English company Groome Lead Mines Limited financed the Conception Mines in the 1870s, giving the district its name (nearby mines included Maria, Willow, and White Lake).J. B. Osborne and partners acquired the interests in Groom in 1876, and his son acquired the interests in the 1890s.Mining continued until 1918, then resumed after World War II until the early 1950s.

The airfield on the Groom Lake site began service in 1942 as Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field and consisted of two unpaved 5,000-foot runways at 37°16′35″N115°45′20″W.


Retrocausality, or backwards causation, is a concept of cause and effect in which an effect precedes its cause in time and so a later event affects an earlier one. In quantum physics, the distinction between cause and effect is not made at the most fundamental level and so time-symmetricsystems can be viewed as causal or retrocausal. Philosophical considerations of time travel often address the same issues as retrocausality, as do treatments of the subject in fiction, but the two phenomena are distinct.


Philosophical efforts to understand causality extend back at least to Aristotle‘s discussions of the four causes. It was long considered that an effect preceding its cause is an inherent self-contradiction because, as 18th century philosopher David Hume discussed, when examining two related events, the cause, by definition, is the one that precedes the effect.

In the 1950s, Michael Dummett wrote in opposition to such definitions, stating that there was no philosophical objection to effects preceding their causes.This argument was rebutted by fellow philosopher Antony Flew and, later, by Max Black.Black’s “bilking argument” held that retrocausality is impossible because the observer of an effect could act to prevent its future cause from ever occurring. A more complex discussion of how free will relates to the issues Black raised is summarized by Newcomb’s paradoxEssentialist philosophers have proposed other theories, such as the existence of “genuine causal powers in nature” or by raising concerns about the role of induction in theories of causality.


The ability to affect the past is sometimes taken to suggest that causes could be negated by their own effects, creating a logical contradiction such as the grandfather paradox.This contradiction is not necessarily inherent to retrocausality or time travel; by limiting the initial conditions of time travel with consistency constraints, such paradoxes and others are avoided.

Aspects of modern physics, such as the hypothetical tachyon particle and certain time-independent aspects of quantum mechanics, may allow particles or information to travel backward in time. Logical objections to macroscopic time travel may not necessarily prevent retrocausality at other scales of interaction.Even if such effects are possible, however, they may not be capable of producing effects different from those that would have resulted from normal causal relationships.


Closed timelike curves, in which the world lineof an object returns to its origin, arise from some exact solutions to the Einstein field equation. Although closed timelike curves do not appear to exist under normal conditions, extreme environments of spacetime, such as a traversable wormhole or the region near certain cosmic strings, may allow their formation, implying a theoretical possibility of retrocausality. The exotic matter or topological defects required for the creation of those environments have not been observed.Furthermore, the chronology protection conjecture of Stephen Hawking suggests that any such closed timelike curve would be destroyed before it could be used.These objections to the existence of closed timelike curves are not universally accepted.

Quantum physics.

Retrocausality is associated with the Double Inferential state-Vector Formalism (DIVF), later known as the two-state vector formalism(TSVF) in quantum mechanics, where the present is characterised by quantum states of the past and the future taken in combination.Time runs left to right in this Feynman diagram of electron–positron annihilation. When interpreted to include retrocausality, the electron (marked e) was not destroyed, instead becoming the positron (e+) and moving backward in time.Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, proposed by John Archibald Wheeler and Richard Feynman, uses retrocausality and a temporal form of destructive interference to explain the absence of a type of converging concentric wave suggested by certain solutions to Maxwell’s equations.[These advanced waves have nothing to do with cause and effect: they are simply a different mathematical way to describe normal waves. The reason they were proposed is that a charged particle would not have to act on itself, which, in normal classical electromagnetism, leads to an infinite self-fo

Ernst Stueckelberg, and later Richard Feynman, proposed an interpretation of the positron as an electron moving backward in time, reinterpreting the negative-energy solutions of the Dirac equation. Electrons moving backward in time would have a positive electric charge.Wheeler invoked this concept to explain the identical properties shared by all electrons, suggesting that “they are all the same electron” with a complex, self-intersecting world line.Yoichiro Nambu later applied it to all production and annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs, stating that “the eventual creation and annihilation of pairs that may occur now and then is no creation or annihilation, but only a change of direction of moving particles, from past to future, or from future to past.”The backwards-in-time point of view is nowadays accepted as completely equivalent to other pictures,but it has nothing to do with the macroscopic terms “cause” and “effect”, which do not appear in a microscopic physical description.

Retrocausality is sometimes associated with the nonlocal correlations that generically arise from quantum entanglement, including for example the delayed choice quantum eraser.However accounts of quantum entanglement can be given which do not involve retrocausality. They treat the experiments demonstrating these correlations as being described from different reference frames that disagree on which measurement is a “cause” versus an “effect”, as necessary to be consistent with special relativity.That is to say, the choice of which event is the cause and which the effect is not absolute but is relative to the observer. The description of such nonlocal quantum entanglements can be described in a way that is free of retrocausality if the states of the system are considered.Physicist John G. Cramer has explored various proposed methods for nonlocal or retrocausal quantum communication and found them all flawed and, consistent with the no communication theorem, unable to transmit nonlocal signals.

Even if retrocausality exists at a quantum level, it cannot be used for communication because verifying any nonlocal correlation requires ordinary subluminal communication between observers at the source and destination: the no communication theoremprevents the superluminal transfer of information. Fundamental descriptions of matter and forces require the full framework of quantum field theory in which spacelike-separated operators commute.

Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon

Let’s say your friend recently told you about a new Netflix show.

After you heard about the show from her, you began seeing and hearing about it everywhere — on Facebook, at dinner with your parents, on your favorite radio station.

Kind of creepy, right? It might feel a bit like a conspiracy theory, like the whole world’s suddenly playing a prank on you — but it’s not. It’s known as the Bader-Meinhof Phenomenon.

How the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon Secretly Influences Your Decisions

Let’s say your friend recently told you about a new Netflix show.

After you heard about the show from her, you began seeing and hearing about it everywhere — on Facebook, at dinner with your parents, on your favorite radio station.

Kind of creepy, right? It might feel a bit like a conspiracy theory, like the whole world’s suddenly playing a prank on you — but it’s not. It’s known as the Bader-Meinhof Phenomenon.

Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon (a.k.a. the Recency Bias or Frequency Illusion)

The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon, otherwise known as the frequency illusion or recency bias, is a situation where something you recently learned about suddenly seems to appear everywhere. There are two reasons for this phenomenon — first, selective attention, which means your brain is subconsciously seeking out more information on the subject. Second, confirmation bias, which means every time you see something related to the subject, your brain tells you that it’s proof the subject has gained popularity overnight.

There are a few ways the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon might influence your customer’s decision-making process, and understanding the psychology behind it is key to taking your marketing strategies to the next level. Let’s take a look at three ways in particular now.

Three Ways the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon Secretly Influences Your Customer’s Decisions

1. The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon and Repetitive Marketing

To incorporate the effects of the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon into your marketing strategy, you need to put your brand messaging out there as much as possible.

Remember, the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon can only happen if someone initially notices or learns about your product. You’ll want to start with strong ad copy, an attention-grabbing headline, and memorable images to attract your audience and introduce them to your company.

Now that their brains are selectively paying attention, you’ll want to spread your messaging to various platforms, including social media, radio stations, TV, billboards. You’ll want to choose platforms that align with your brand and customer base — the point is, you want to repeatedly appear on these platforms so your customers can notice you.

Paid online advertisements and retargeting are two effective strategies for ensuring your frequency-illusioned customers start seeing you everywhere.

Ideally, this will become a self sustaining long-term strategy. Even if your customer isn’t in the market for your product now, they’ve seen your company everywhere. Next time their friend is looking for a product like yours, your potential customer will mention you first.

2. The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon and Social Proof Theory

The Social Proof Theory, first coined by psychologist Robert Cialdini, states that someone who doesn’t know how to act or think will imitate other people, or turn to peers for guidance.

In marketing, social proof is an extremely effective method for persuading customers to buy a product. Customer reviews, testimonials, and statements like “four out of five parents recommend” are critical for convincing hestitant buyers to choose one product over another.

What does this have to do with the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon? Well, think about it: the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon maintains that you’ll see or hear something more if you’ve recently learned about it.

For example, let’s say you’ve recently learned about the new FitBit Charge 2.

Suddenly, you hear your coworkers talking about it. Then, you see a post on Instagram, with one of your favorite celebrities endorsing the product.

It’s likely people were talking about the FitBit Charge 2 before you heard about it, but once you did, your brain paid more attention to it. You took note of all those people raving about the product, and meanwhile, your brain chose not to pick up on that other conversation about the new Samsung Galaxy Gear Fit.

In other words, you selectively listened to people discussing the FitBit product because you’d recently learned about it, and then social proof led you to believe it was the best, and perhaps only, fitness tracker option.

As you can see, these two psychological phenomenons work together to convince someone to buy one product in particular.

To get the most out of the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon, you’ll want to use it hand-in-hand with The Social Proof Theory. Include reviews and testimonials on your website, as well as third-party sites like Yelp, so once your customer learns about your product, she will be subsequently convinced through social proof to buy it.

3. The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon and Confirmation Bias

The Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon works for two reasons — selective attention, and confirmation bias.

Let’s consider the second reason for a minute. Confirmation bias is actually a phenomenal tactic to convince customers to buy from your company over your competitors. Essentially, confirmation bias means someone looks for evidence to confirm what they already believe, even when that evidence is largely neutral.

For instance, let’s say you read that right-handed people are better at math. You believe it, and whenever you meet someone who’s right-handed and good at math, you file that information away as evidence you’re correct. You’re insistent on maintaining your prior beliefs. You look for evidences that supports it, and you ignore evidence that contradicts it — like your left-handed friend who is incredible at math.

What does this have to do with marketing? A lot.

Once your customers believe something to be true about your product, they’ll look for evidence to support it and ignore evidence to the contrary. If you can convince them your product offers something unique nothing else on the market can offer, they’ll believe it, and then they’ll seek out evidence to support it.

Easier said than done though, right?

To learn how to use confirmation bias to your marketing advantage, let’s take a look at an example from the 1990’s, when Schlitz, a failing beer company, hired Claude Hopkins, a legendary man in advertising at the time.

Hopkins asked Schlitz to give him a tour of their brewery. On the tour, he saw plate-glass rooms with beer dripping over pipes, expensive wood filters that took out impurities in the beer, and rooms filled with filtered air. The pumps and pipes were cleaned twice a day to avoid contamination.

Seeing the impressive process in action, Hopkins asked Schlitz why they didn’t advertise it to people to prove their beer was better.

The Schlitz people told him, “All companies brew beer the same way.”

“Yes,” Hopkins replied, “But the first one to tell the public about this process will gain a big advantage.”

Within six months of Hopkins’ advertising campaign for Schlitz, Schlitz beer became the number one selling beer in America. Why? Because people were given evidence to believe Schlitz was purer. Once they were embedded with a confirmation bias for Schlitz, they probably tasted the beer and thought, “Yes, this is more pure.” They also avoided other beer companies’ advertisements to the contrary.

By figuring out what makes your product unique and telling potential customers, you’re creating a confirmation bias that your product is exceptional. As people seek out evidence to support their belief, the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon asserts they’ll begin seeing your product everywhere.

It’s not easy, but if you can create a compelling campaign to capture an audience’s attention and show them why your product is better than others, the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon and confirmation bias can do the rest.

badder meinhof phenomenon is a mental illness that every human is on one stage

Flight endurance world record

There are a lot of world records related to flight. They can be in either a manned or unmanned aircraft, re-fueled or un-refueled, and cover areas such as flight distance, speed, or altitude. One of the most interesting and sought after of all flight records is for refueled, manned flight endurance. The current record of 64 days, 22 hours, and 19 minutes was set in 1958, by Robert Timm and John Cook. The story of this pair of Las Vegas pilots, and their record breaking flight is incredible, often funny, and always a little unbelievable. But to help put their story in the proper context, and give it a little additional weight, let’s start by defining flight endurance, and providing a little history.

Flight Endurance and the Early Years of Aviation

Flight endurance is defined as the longest amount of time an aircraft in a specific category can spend in continuous flight without landing. In manned flight endurance, flying can be handled by one pilot, though this is not the recommended method. The flying can be handled by multiple pilots, as long as all pilots remain in the aircraft for the duration of the flight. In the early days of aviation, flight endurance time was limited by how much fuel a plane could carry. But this was all about to change with the introduction of aerial refueling, something which would vastly increase the amount of time an airplane could stay in the air.

The first mid air refueling between two planes took place on June 27, 1923. The planes were Airco DH-4B Biplanes in the US Army Air Service. A mere two months later, the first refueled endurance record that beat the current un-refueled endurance record1 was set by three DH-4Bs, a receiving plane and two tankers. The receiving plane managed to stay aloft for more than 37 hours. During that time, it had 9 mid-air refuelings that pumped 687 gallons of gas, and 38 gallons of oil into its tanks. Over the years since that time, the refueled, manned endurance record has been broken on at least a dozen occasions. In 1929 alone, the record was broken and re-set five times!

In 1949, Bob Woodhouse and Woody Jongeward flew an Aeronca Sedan for 46 days and 9 hours before landing. These former Navy pilots were part of an effort to convince the government to reopen the Yuma Army Airfield, to help bolster the sagging Yuma economy. They were ultimately successful in their bid, also setting an impressive new endurance record that stood for almost a decade.

Fast forward 9 years to 1958. It’s two years after the release of the Cessna 172, which has become quite popular. Literally thousands have been built. Jim Heth and Bill Burkhart decide that this is just the plane to help them set a new flight endurance record. So, using a modified Cessna 172 called ‘The Old Scotchman‘, they took to the air in August 1958. 50 days (1200 hours) later, they landed, handily breaking the 1949 record. They were to enjoy this record for only a couple short months, however, as another group was finally ready to take flight in the deserts of Las Vegas.

Sin city and flight endurance

In 1956, Doc Bailey, an enterprising businessman, had built the first family oriented hotel and casino in Las Vegas, the 265 room ‘Hacienda‘. However, due to its (then) undesirable location at the far southern end of the strip, and its catering to families, locals, and those considered to be ‘low rollers’, the Hacienda had a reputation problem. It needs good publicity, and stat! Bailey tried many tactics, like hiring pretty women to hand out coupons to truckers, but he was soon convinced to engage in something much more ambitious.

Bailey, known for listening to and considering ideas no matter where they came from, was approached by one of his slot machine mechanics, Robert Timm. Timm, who at 240 lbs was described as a ‘bear’ of a man, was a WW2 bomber pilot, and an experienced aviator with a passion for flying. Timm convinced Doc that backing and publicizing an attempt to break the manned flight endurance world record was just the ticket. And with the name ‘Hacienda Hotel’ featured prominently on the side of the aircraft, it was sure to draw many eyes to the business.

To avoid the appearance of this flight merely being a publicity stunt for the hotel, Doc came up with an inspired idea. The flight would be a fundraiser, in support of the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation. And anyone who wanted to guess how long the plane would stay in the air could send in their guess with a monetary contribution to the foundation. This would also qualify them for a chance to earn $10,000 if their guess was closest to the actual time the plane stayed in the air. Apparently, gambling is a-OK when it’s in support of a noble cause.

So, with Doc committed to backing the flight with $100,000, and Timm serving as the primary pilot, they needed two more things: a co-pilot, and an aircraft.

Modifying a Cessna 172 to Break the Flight Endurance Record

The aircraft came first. Tim reached out to his friend Irv Kuenzi, a mechanic at Alamo Aviation in Las Vegas. “He told me about this project he was going to get involved in and wanted to know if I’d be interested in helping him. I told him ‘sure.’” Kuenzi and Timm selected N9217B, a Cessna 172with 1500 hours total time on the airframe. Kuenzi was familiar with this particular aircraft, and had already worked on it before. The plane’s avionics included a Narco Omnigator Mk II and a Mitchell autopilot, but Timm and Kuenzi spent almost a year modifying the Cessna 172 to be mission appropriate.

To start, they installed a 95 gallon Sorenson belly tank on the plane to supplement the 47 gallons of fuel the wing tanks could carry. They then outfitted this belly tank with an electric pump so it could transfer fuel to the airplane’s wing tanks. The planes oil lines were re-plumbed, allowing for the changing of engine oil and oil filters without shutting down the engine. The current interior furnishings, except for the pilot’s seat, were then completely removed. The co-pilot’s side door was also removed, and replaced with a folding, accordion style door. A small platform was designed that could be lowered out this door to provide more footing during refueling operations. In place of the co-pilot’s seat, they installed a four foot by four foot, four inch thick foam pad. And in the rear, they installed a small, stainless steel sink for the purpose of washing and shaving during the flight.

With these modifications in place, Timm and Kuenzi decided they also wanted to replace the plane’s current 450 hour-since-new engine with a brand new one. So Timm contacted Continental Motors (the manufacturer of the current six cylinder, 145 hp engine), explained to them his plan, and got them to agree to supply a new engine for the plane. Timm requested a special engine be built specifically for this attempt, and surprisingly, Continental agreed. It wasn’t until years later that Kuenzi found out exactly how they prepared the ‘special‘ engine. The sales manager for Continental came up with a simple solution, probably sensing that if the Hacienda was successful in breaking the flight endurance record using a special motor, everyone would soon be requesting special motors. The sales manager told a female co-worker to go down to the production line and pick the new 145 she liked the best. This ‘special‘ engine was then provided to Timm and Kuenzi.

Timm, also a certified airplane mechanic, had one additional modification he wanted to make to the airplane. He had Kuenzi install a primer-like system he had designed that would squirt alcohol into the combustion chamber of each of the engine’s six cylinders. It was Timm’s belief that this alcohol injection system would help prevent the buildup of carbon in the combustion chambers. Kuenzi did not agree, and fought Timm on this. However, he eventually conceded. Kuenzi removed the 450-hour-since-new engine from the Cessna 172, installed the brand new ‘special‘ engine from Continental, and hooked up Timm’s alcohol-injection system.

The First Attempts to Break the Flight Endurance Record

Finally, with all the modifications in place, it was time to take to the skies. The last thing Timm needed was a co-pilot. Sadly, the name of his first of two co-pilots seems to have been relegated to the dust-bin of history. I have been unable to find more than a few cursory sentences regarding this co-pilot’s role in the early attempts, and no identifying information. Timm and co-pilot A took to the skies twice in an attempt to break the endurance record, but each flight was cut short by mechanical problems.

Hoping that the third time would be a charm, they again took to the skies. Timm, who kept a diary during the flights, noted that at 4 AM one morning ‘the entire sky lit up.‘ Timm would later find out that he had witnessed one of the 57 above ground atomic bomb detonations set off during 1958 in the Nevada testing area2 65 miles to the northwest of Las Vegas. The third flight was also cut short by mechanical problems. This time, it was due to burned exhaust valves in the ‘special‘ engine.

None of these three flight lasted longer than 17 days. This was still enough time, however, for Timm to decide he was not getting along with co-pilot A. Timm dismissed this first co-pilot, and the search began for a new one. Timm was also becoming frustrated with the continued mechanical problems, and the delays they were causing. To add to his stress, Heth and Burkhart had just landed ‘The Old Scotchman,‘ breaking the previous record. They now would need at least 50 days in the air!

It Turns Out John Wayne Was at the Alamo

It turns out that Timm didn’t need to look very far to find his new co-pilot. He settled on John Wayne Cook, a lanky, single, 33 year old airplane mechanic with experience flying for the airlines. Cook was also employed at Alamo Aviation. As it turned out, Cook had also spent time working on N9217B, the Cessna 172 now dubbed ‘Hacienda‘. When Timm asked Cook if he’d join him on this fourth attempt, Cook simply replied ‘Sure, I’ll try.

While Timm searched for a new co-pilot, Kuenzi worked on the aircraft engine. He removed the damaged ‘special‘ engine, and reinstalled the old 450-hour-since-new engine. Acting on a hunch, and without telling Timm, Kuenzi also disconnected Timm’s alcohol-injection system. He rerouted it so that the alcohol would now be pumped out the bottom of the lower cowling. This hunch turned out to be spot on, and the used engine ended up working for over 2,000 hours of operation (1,559 continuous hours) by the end of the flight.

Finally, it was time to try once more. With slightly less fanfare than Bailey desired (this was their fourth attempt, after all) on 4 December 1958, at 3:52 PM, Timm and Cook lifted off from McCarran Field in Las Vegas. They were operating the aircraft at well above the maximum takeoff weight, but they had been granted a waiver by the FAA, allowing them to operate the aircraft with an additional 350-400 pounds of weight. After take-off, Timm and Cook made a pass on the airfield to allow a chase car to paint white stripes on the aircraft’s tires. This was to ensure that Timm and Cook didn’t attempt to cheat and secretly land the plane at some remote airport when no one was looking.

Keeping the Hacienda and its Pilots Fueled for the Flight Endurance Record

Ford (as has been pointed out by a couple of astute, sharp eyed readers, the truck is actually a GMC) truck, graciously donated to the cause by Cashman Auto in Las Vegas, served as the primary support vehicle. The truck was outfitted with a fuel tank, pump, and other support items. Twice a day, the truck would rendezvous with the aircraft over a stretch of straight highway the Government had closed off. Hacienda would fly roughly 20 feet off the ground, and use an electric winch to lower a hook, and snag the refueling hose. Timm or Cook, standing on the platform that was lowered out the co-pilot’s door, would then insert the hose into the belly tank so the necessary fuel could be pumped up. It took roughly three minutes to fill the belly tank.

Sometimes, weather or other glitches would interrupt the schedule, and they’d quickly need to plan a new meeting time or location for refueling. They also had to deal with a non-functioning fuel pump. During these occasions, they would haul up a series of five gallon fuel cans using a rope. Over the course of the flight, this refueling process was repeated 128 times.

Poltergeist (1982 horror film)

Poltergeist is a 1982 American supernatural horror film directed by Tobe Hooper and written by producer Steven SpielbergMichael Grais and Mark Victor from a screen story by Spielberg. It stars JoBeth WilliamsCraig T. NelsonHeather O’Rourke, and Beatrice Straight and is produced by Spielberg alongside Frank Marshall. Set in a California suburb, the plot focuses on a family whose home is invaded by malevolent ghosts that abduct their younger daughter, and the family’s attempts to bring her back into the real world.

A clause in Spielberg’s contract prevented him from directing another film while he made E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Therefore, Hooper was selected to direct based upon his work on The Texas Chain Saw Massacre and The Funhouse. The film was first conceived as a dark horror sequel to Close Encounters of the Third Kindentitled Night Skies. When Spielberg approached Hooper to direct, Hooper was less keen on the sci-fi elements and suggested the idea of a ghost story.[3]Spielberg and Hooper would then go on to collaborate on the first treatment for the film.

Released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer on June 4, 1982, the film was a major critical and commercial success, becoming the eighth-highest-grossing film of 1982. Years since its release, the film has been recognized as a classic within the horror genre and has gained a cult following. Aside from being nominated for three Academy AwardsPoltergeist was named by the Chicago Film Critics Association as the 20th-scariest film ever made, and the scene of the clown doll attack was ranked as #80 on Bravo‘s 100 Scariest Movie Moments.The film also appeared at #84 on American Film Institute‘s 100 Years…100 Thrills, a list of America’s most heart-pounding movies.

The film’s success helped spawn a franchise consisting of two sequels, Poltergeist II: The Other Side (1986), Poltergeist III (1988), and a remake of the same name in 2015.

Plotting of movie poltergeist

Steve and Diane Freeling live a quiet life in an Orange County, California, planned communitycalled Cuesta Verde, where Steve is a successful real estate developer and Diane looks after their children Dana, Robbie, and Carol Anne. Carol Anne awakens one night and begins conversing with the family’s television set, which is displaying staticfollowing a sign-off. The following night, while the Freelings sleep, Carol Anne fixates on the television set as it transmits static again. Suddenly, a ghostly white hand emerges from the television, after which there is a violent earthquake. As the shaking subsides, Carol Anne announces “They’re here”.

Bizarre events occur the following day: a drinking glass of milk spontaneously breaks, silverware bends, and furniture moves of its own accord. The phenomena seem benign at first, but quickly begin to intensify. That night, a gnarled backyard tree comes alive and grabs Robbie through the bedroom window. While Steve rescues Robbie, Carol Anne is sucked into a portal that appears in her closet. The Freelings realize something supernatural has occurred when they hear her voice emanating from the television set that is tuned to an empty channel.

A group of parapsychologists from the UC Irvine—Dr. Lesh, Ryan, and Marty—come to the Freeling house to investigate; they determine that the Freelings are experiencing a poltergeist intrusion. They discover that the disturbances involve more than just one ghost. Steve also finds out in an exchange with his boss, Lewis Teague, that Cuesta Verde is built where a cemetery was once located.

After Dana and Robbie are sent away for their safety, Lesh and Ryan call in Tangina Barrons, a spiritual medium. Tangina states that the ghosts inhabiting the house are lingering in a different “sphere of consciousness” and are not at rest. Attracted to Carol Anne’s life force, these spirits are distracted from the real “light” that has come for them. Tangina then adds that there is also a dark presence she refers to as the “Beast”, who has Carol Anne under restraint in an effort to use her life force to prevent other spirits from crossing over.

The assembled group discovers that the entrance to the other dimension is through the children’s bedroom closet, while the exit is through the living room ceiling. As the group attempts to rescue Carol Anne, Diane passes through the entrance tied by a rope that has been threaded through both portals. Diane manages to retrieve Carol Anne, and they both drop to the floor from the ceiling, unconscious and covered in ectoplasmic residue. As they recover, Tangina proclaims afterward that the house is now “clean”.

Shortly thereafter, the Freelings begin the process of moving elsewhere by packing up their belongings. During their last night in the house, Steve leaves for the office in order to quit his job and Dana goes on a date, leaving Diane, Robbie, and Carol Anne alone in the house. The “Beast” then ambushes Diane and the children, aiming for a second kidnapping by attempting to restrain Robbie and Diane. Robbie is attacked by a clown doll in his bedroom, and Diane is attacked by an unseen force that moves her up the wall and over the ceiling in her room. The unseen force drives Diane to the backyard, dragging her into the swimming pool. Skeletal corpses surround her as she tries to escape, but she manages to climb out of the pool and make her way back into the house. She rescues the children, and they eventually escape to the outside, only to discover coffins and rotting corpses erupting out from the ground in their yard and throughout the neighborhood.

As Steve and Dana return home to the mayhem, Steve confronts Teague after realizing that rather than relocating the cemetery for the development of Cuesta Verde, Teague merely had the headstones moved and the bodies left behind. The Freelings flee Cuesta Verde while the house implodes into the portal, to the astonishment of onlookers. The family checks into a hotel for the night, and Steve rolls the television outside into the walkway.



A clause in his contract with Universal Studiosprevented Spielberg from directing any other film while preparing E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, although according to Hooper, the very core concept of the film was his, which he pitched to Spielberg after turning down the offer to direct Night Skies. Time and Newsweektagged the summer of 1982 “The Spielberg Summer” because E.T. and Poltergeist were released a week apart in June. As such a marketable name, some began to question Spielberg’s role during production. Suggestions that Spielberg had greater directorial influence than the credits suggest were aided by his comments: “Tobe isn’t … a take-charge sort of guy. If a question was asked and an answer wasn’t immediately forthcoming, I’d jump in and say what we could do. Tobe would nod agreement, and that became the process of collaboration.”

The Directors Guild of America “opened an investigation into the question of whether or not Hooper’s official credit was being denigrated by statements Spielberg has made, apparently claiming authorship.” This was first reported in a Los Angeles Timesarticle on May 24, 1982, the same article from which the above quote from Spielberg was first obtained. The investigation ended in an arbitrator’s ruling that “MGM/UA Entertainment Co. must pay $15,000 to director Tobe Hooper because the studio gave producer Steven Spielberg a bigger credit than Hooper got in its trailers,” although also noting that “broader issues of dispute exist between producer-writer (Spielberg) and the director” (original damages of $200,000 were originally sought by the DGA).Co-producer Frank Marshall told the Los Angeles Times that “the creative force of the movie was Steven. Tobe was the director and was on the set every day. But Steven did the design for every storyboard and he was on the set every day except for three days when he was in Hawaii with Lucas.” However, Hooper stated that he “did fully half of the storyboards.”

The Hollywood Reporter printed an open letterfrom Spielberg to Hooper in the week of the film’s release.

Secret of poltergeist

There was a little girl who worked in this film, that girl was 12 years old and after the completion of the film, that girl died and then everyone else worked in this film, why is it said in all that This film was shot on Jha, there were ghosts and people were shooting this film on Wha. They used to shoot Bhoot Abab Shanab about shooting as well as ghosts, so they are said to have died in the hands of ghosts. .


Box officeEdit

Poltergeist was released theatrically by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer on June 4, 1982. The film was a commercial success and grossed $76,606,280 in the United States, making it the highest-grossing horror film of 1982 and eighth overall for the year.

Critical responseEdit

The film was well received by critics and is considered by many as a classic of the horror gen as well as one of the best films of 1982. It holds an approval rating of 85% on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoesbased on 61 reviews, with a consensus that reads: “Smartly filmed, tightly scripted, and—most importantly—consistently frightening, Poltergeist is a modern horror classic.”Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four and called it “an effective thriller, not so much because of the special effects, as because Hooper and Spielberg have tried to see the movie’s strange events through the eyes of the family members, instead of just standing back and letting the special effects overwhelm the cast along with the audience.”Vincent Canby of The New York Times called it “a marvelously spooky ghost story” with “extraordinary technical effects” that were “often eerie and beautiful but also occasionally vividly gruesome.” Andrew Sarris, in The Village Voice, wrote that when Carol Anne is lost, the parents and the two older children “come together in blood-kin empathy to form a larger-than-life family that will reach down to the gates of hell to save its loved ones.”[34] In the Los Angeles Herald Examiner, Peter Rainer wrote:

Buried within the plot of Poltergeist is a basic, splendid fairy tale scheme: the story of a little girl who puts her parents through the most outrageous tribulation to prove their love for her. Underlying most fairy tales is a common theme: the comforts of family. Virtually all fairy tales begin with a disrupting of the family order, and their conclusion is usually a return to order.[34]

Diethria phlogea(butterfly)

It is a species of family butterfly Nymphidia. It is found in South America, Colombia.

Some authors consider it to be a subspecies of Deatheria euclides such as Deatheria euclides phlogia.

Edit reference
Diathria Falia, Catalog of Life 2000
Deatheria in Lepidoptera and some other life forms of Mark Savela

Stub icon This article related to members of the butterfly subfamily Biblidinae is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. 

It has been given the nickname “89/98” because of the markings on its wings resembling an 89 and 98.

This is such a butterfly that people have seen doing physical work. And it does not appear in such a normal place. And the special thing of this butterfly is that it never goes into the walls and houses, it sits only on the tree.

People have not seen this butterfly till date and some people have seen it, they also do not tell anything about this butterfly because after seeing this butterfly, a rage is born in the mind of the people. Transforms humans completely

Why 99.9% germs are killed. Why not 100% germs are killed?

It kills 99.9% of bacteria “been tested” not ALL species of course.
The question should be “how many PATHOGENIC bacteria killed by Dettol?”
“what are long term side effects of using it?”
Over years hoping stop misleading false claims but sounds hopeless! Dettol® forced to claim “remove 100 stains and germs” but printed as REMOVE 100 GERMS and stains !!!!
Counting on IQ deterioration epidemic proved a valid strategy but at least show some respect to the remaining scientific society! Im not asking you to tell people percentage of PATHOGENIC bacteria killed by Dettol Nor the long term side effect of using it But for god sake they should do it professional! Kids can make a better false claim nowadays!!!

This type of statement and other similar ones that are used in the marketing of many common disinfectants can be misleading and potentially dangerous if it is the primary reason you are choosing a particular product.

Imagine you are concerned about the flu virus and you want to use a disinfectant that will be effective against all of this year’s Influenza types and strains. If a disinfectant claims that it will kill 99.9% of germs, it should kill 99.9% of the flu germs on a given surface, right? And, if killing 99.9% of germs is good, then a product that says it will kill 99.99% of germs should work even better, right?

WRONG. On both questions.

Some of the most popular disinfectants sold in the United States are effective on only a small number of pathogens. Many of these products have marketing statements that say the product “kills 99.9% of germs*.” However, somewhere on the container in small print is the list of germs it actually kills, and this list of germs may or may not include some or all of the Influenza viruses.

A quick look at the label of many popular products reveals some interesting facts found in the large print of marketing and the small print of reality. As a general rule of thumb, if you see an asterisk on a label then the marketing claims need a closer examination.

The Truth About 99.9%

When a marketing claim of “kills 99.9% of germs” is used, it may or may not kill the specific variety of bacteria or pathogen you need killed. By law, disinfectants must list the microorganisms which a product has been tested for and found to be effective against on their label, as well as proper dilution and directions for use. Check the label for the specific pathogens you need protection from.

All Disinfectants Are Not Created Equal

Many people think that all disinfectant solutions are basically the same and the only differences are color, fragrance, and maybe the dilution ratio. The truth is that there are many different formulations which vary primarily based on chemical composition, efficacy claims (what it is proven to kill) and dilution ratios.

Common types of disinfectants used for facility maintenance may include active ingredients such as quaternary ammonium (quat), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), hydrogen peroxide, silver ions, iodine, acids or alcohol – each of which may be effective on different strains of pathogens.

Some types of formulations are more effective against viruses such as influenza and colds. Others are effective against bacteria commonly found in and around food preparation areas. Others are considered high-level disinfectants with very a wide range of efficacy against antibiotic resistant organisms for the healthcare market. And still others have claims most useful in animal clinics. It is important to know what you need.

Disinfectants kill only select strains of germs. No disinfectant is capable of killing all germs found on a hard surface. The absence of all germs is referred to as sterilization and is a process that surpasses the efficacy level achieved with any disinfectant solution. EPA-registered chemical sterilants are the only types of sanitation products that can make a claim to kill all pathogens on hard surfaces.

Make an Informed Disinfectant Decision

Before deciding on which disinfectant is right for your specific purpose, be sure to read its label. Many excellent disinfectant solutions exist that meet the needs of most applications. When choosing, consider a few key decision-making guidelines.

What are the germs of concern?

If it is cold or flu, chose a product with a wide range of claims against viruses
In a health care setting antibiotic resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile (C.diff) are present. Often hospitals and other healthcare facilities will use more than one disinfectant solution to effectively combat the different types of pathogens they are most concerned with
Schools and daycare may have specific organisms of concern, such as RSV
Animal care facilities need products with claims specific for animals, such as canine parvovirus or feline leukemia
Surfaces to be disinfected: Some disinfectants are not recommended for all surfaces. One example is bleach, which can be damaging to stainless steel. Another is products with a high pH, which can damage floor finishes and fabrics. Neutral pH solutions are better on floors than high pH solutions, however they may not have all of your required kill claims.

Safety and user exposure: Building occupants, students, patients, residents, and janitorial staff may have skin or odor sensitivities to various disinfectant solutions.

Dilution: Disinfectants come in concentrated, ready to use, wipes, and even aerosol forms, each with different kill claims. You’ll want to consider convenience and budget.

So what does the statement “Kills 99.9% of germs” on a disinfectant really mean? We think not much. The bottom line is that no matter what the marketing claim, no single disinfectant solution will work for every application and in every setting. Many excellent options for disinfecting are available. Read the label and consult your supplier for an appropriate recommendation.

As Slow as Possible

Organ/ASLSP (As Slow as Possible) is a musical piece by John Cage and the subject of one of the longest-lasting musical performances yet undertaken. It was originally written in 1987 for organ and is adapted from the earlier work ASLSP 1985; a typical performance of the piano version lasts 20 to 70 minutes. In 1985, Cage opted to omit the detail of exactly how slowly the piece should be played.

The performance of the organ version at St. Burchardi church in Halberstadt, Germany began in 2001 and is scheduled to have a duration of 639 years, ending in 2640.

History of as slow as possible

The piece was commissioned for a piano competition by The Friends of the Maryland Summer Institute for the Creative and Performing Arts as a contemporary requirement. Cage employed an open format mainly to ensure that no two performances would be the same, providing the judges a break from the monotony of most compositions. The score consists of eight pages.

Performances of as slow as possible

On February 5, 2009, Diane Luchese performed “Organ/ASLSP” from 8:45 a.m. to 11:41 p.m. in the Harold J. Kaplan Concert Hall at Towson University. This 14-hour-and-56-minute performance, in strict adherence to the score’s temporal proportions, is the longest documented performance of the piece by a single person so far,although a full 24-hour performance of the original piece, ASLSP, was given by Joe Drew during the ARTSaha! festival in 2008. Drew has also given 9- and 12-hour performances of the piece, and as of September 2018, was planning a 48-hour performance.

On September 5, 2012, as part of John Cage Day at the University of Adelaide, Australia, Stephen Whittington performed an 8-hour version of ASLSP on the Elder Hall organ. The eight sections of the work were each allocated an hour, with each section divided into segments of one minute, within which the precise timing of events was left open. In performance, seven sections were performed, with one omitted and one repeated. Organ registrations were determined by chance procedures.

A 12-hour performance took place on September 4–5, 2015, in an all-night concert at Christ Church Cathedral in Montréal, Québec. The work was performed by the Cathedral organists Patrick Wedd, Adrian Foster, and Alex Ross, while other Cage compositions were performed simultaneously in the church. The performers used a stopwatch, and the timing of each note was precisely calculated and written into the score.

On June 22, 2019, to mark “the shortest day” (Southern Hemisphere Winter solstice), organist Daniel Cooper presented a 12-hour performance of Organ/ASLSP in Knox Church, Christchurch, New Zealand (first New Zealand Performance). The performance began at 10am and ended at 10pm.

India’s one and only floating post office in Srinagar

India has the largest postal network in the world with over 1, 55,015 post offices. A single post office on an average serves a population of 7,175 people. The floating post office in Dal Lake, Srinagar, was inaugurated in August 2011,amidst picturesque snow-clad mountains on a huge houseboat in Dal Lake. In fact, the surprising factor here is that it is not the only floating post office in India, but also in world, which makes it a unique piece of architecture!

About the post office

The floating post office was inaugurated back in the year 2011 by Omar Abdullah, the then Chief Minister of the state of Jammu & Kashmir along with Sachin Pilot, Minister of State for Communications and IT. This is an active post office that is not only visited by locals for posting letters but also by tourists at large. Other services offered here include internet facility and international phone calls.

It is involved in delivering mail (post), remitting money by money orders, accepting deposits under Small Savings Schemes, providing life insurance coverage under Postal Life Insurance (PLI) and Rural Postal Life Insurance (RPLI) and providing retail services like bill collection, sale of forms, etc. The DoP also acts as an agent for Government of India in discharging other services for citizens such as old age pension payments and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) wage disbursement. With 155,015 post offices, India Post has the most widely distributed postal network in the world.

The country has been divided into 23 postal circles, each circle headed by a Chief Postmaster General. Each circle is divided into regions, headed by a Postmaster General and comprising field units known as Divisions. These divisions are further divided into subdivisions. In addition to the 23 circles, there is a base circle to provide postal services to the Armed Forces of India headed by a director-general. One of the highest post offices in the world is in Hikkim, Himachal Pradesh operated by India Post at a height of 14,567 ft (4,440 m).

The Department of Posts (DoP), trading as India Post, is a government-operated postal system in India, which is a subsidiary of the Ministry of Communications. Generally called “the Post Office” in India, it is the most widely distributed postal system in the world. Founded in 1854 by Lord Dalhousie who laid the foundation for the modern Indian postal service. Dalhousie introduced uniform postage rates (universal service) and helped to pass the India Post Office Act 1854 which significantly improved upon 1837 Post Office act which had introduced regular post offices in India.[6] It created the position Director General of Post for the whole country.