Strongest car in the world

Tesla Model S Achieves Best Safety Rating of Any Car Ever Tested

Independent testing by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has awarded the Tesla Model S a 5-star safety rating, not just overall, but in every subcategory without exception. Approximately one percent of all cars tested by the federal government achieve 5 stars across the board. NHTSA does not publish a star rating above 5, however safety levels better than 5 stars are captured in the overall Vehicle Safety Score (VSS) provided to manufacturers, where the Model S achieved a new combined record of 5.4 stars.

Of all vehicles tested, including every major make and model approved for sale in the United States, the Model S set a new record for the lowest likelihood of injury to occupants. While the Model S is a sedan, it also exceeded the safety score of all SUVs and minivans. This score takes into account the probability of injury from front, side, rear and rollover accidents.

The Model S has the advantage in the front of not having a large gasoline engine block, thus creating a much longer crumple zone to absorb a high speed impact. This is fundamentally a force over distance problem – the longer the crumple zone, the more time there is to slow down occupants at g loads that do not cause injuries. Just like jumping into a pool of water from a tall height, it is better to have the pool be deep and not contain rocks. The Model S motor is only about a foot in diameter and is mounted close to the rear axle, and the front section that would normally contain a gasoline engine is used for a second trunk.

For the side pole intrusion test, considered one of the most difficult to pass, the Model S was the only car in the “good” category among the other top one percent of vehicles tested. Compared to the Volvo S60, which is also 5-star rated in all categories, the Model S preserved 63.5 percent of driver residual space vs. 7.8 percent for the Volvo. Tesla achieved this outcome by nesting multiple deep aluminum extrusions in the side rail of the car that absorb the impact energy (a similar approach was used by the Apollo Lunar Lander) and transfer load to the rest of the vehicle. This causes the pole to be either sheared off or to stop the car before the pole hits an occupant.

The rear crash testing was particularly important, given the optional third row children’s seat. For this, Tesla factory installs a double bumper if the third row seat is ordered. This was needed in order to protect against a highway speed impact in the rear with no permanently disabling injury to the third row occupants. The third row is already the safest location in the car for frontal or side injuries.

The Model S was also substantially better in rollover risk, with the other top vehicles being approximately 50 percent worse. During testing at an independent facility, the Model S refused to turn over via the normal methods and special means were needed to induce the car to roll. The reason for such a good outcome is that the battery pack is mounted below the floor pan, providing a very low center of gravity, which simultaneously ensures exceptional handling and safety.

Of note, during validation of Model S roof crush protection at an independent commercial facility, the testing machine failed at just above 4 g’s. While the exact number is uncertain due to Model S breaking the testing machine, what this means is that at least four additional fully loaded Model S vehicles could be placed on top of an owner’s car without the roof caving in. This is achieved primarily through a center (B) pillar reinforcement attached via aerospace grade bolts.


above results do not tell the full story. It is possible to game the regulatory testing score to some degree by strengthening a car at the exact locations used by the regulatory testing machines. After verifying through internal testing that the Model S would achieve a NHTSA 5-star rating, Tesla then analyzed the Model S to determine the weakest points in the car and retested at those locations until the car achieved 5 stars no matter how the test equipment was configured.

The Model S lithium-ion battery did not catch fire at any time before, during or after the NHTSA testing. It is worth mentioning that no production Tesla lithium-ion battery has ever caught fire in the Model S or Roadster, despite several high speed impacts. While this is statistically unlikely to remain the case long term, Tesla is unaware of any Model S or Roadster occupant fatalities in any car ever.

Invisible fire

Methanol, also known as wood alcohol or methyl alcohol, is a colorless liquid with a faintly sweet alcohol odor. The chemical is fully soluble in water, and is readily biodegradable in both water and soil. Vapors
of methanol are slightly heavier than air, and may travel some distance to a source of igniti on and fl ash back. Accumulati ons of vapors in confi ned spaces may explode if ignited, and containers fi lled with
methanol may rupture violently if exposed to fi re or excessive heat for a prolonged durati on. Direct exposure to methanol should be avoided as methanol can be harmful if swallowed, absorbed through
the skin, or inhaled. Ingesti on of as litt le as one to four ounces can cause irreversible injury to the nervous system, blindness or death. When properly contained and handled, methanol can be a safe and eff ective
product for a wide range of applications.

Fire safety

The U.S. Department of Transportati on regulates methanol as a Class 3 Flammable Liquid, with a subsidiary risk as a Class 6.1 Toxic Material. Soluti ons of methanol containing up to 74% water are classifi ed as fl ammable.
Compared with gasoline, methanol spills are harder to ignite, burn at a slower rate, and with less heat intensity. Methanol vapors must be four ti mes more concentrated in air than gasoline vapor for igniti on to occur. Each year, about 16,000 Americans are exposed to post-crash
fi res in cars and other light-duty vehicles, resulti ng in hundreds of fataliti es. According to the U.S. Environmental Protecti on Agency a switch to methanol fuel would reduce the number of automoti ve fuel related fi res by 90% compared with gasoline, saving hundreds of lives each year.
Methanol fl ames are almost invisible in bright sunlight conditi ons, but they may be detected by the heat generated or the burning of other materials. Large amounts of water will remove heat and can be eff ecti ve in diluti ng methanol to the point where most fi res can be readily
exti nguished. To prevent fi res keep open fl ames, sparks and oxidants away from methanol. For over three decades, methanol has been the fuel of choice for Indianapolis-type racecars in part because of its superior fi re safety characteristi cs. When an INDY car pulls into the pit with an engine fi re, pit crews simply pour water on the racecar, and the driver gets back into the race (see photos). Dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide

and alcohol-resistant foam exti nguish methanol fi res by oxygen deprivati on. Firefi ghters should use full-face, self- contained breathing apparatus, and wear impervious clothing, gloves and boots. For larger fi res involving a tank, rail car or tank truck, isolate for ½ mile in all directi ons, also consider evacuati on for ½ mile in all directi ons. Keep any methanol containers cool by spraying with water.

The yellow ‘flame’ is actually an aerosol of black particles heated to temperatures around 1000-1500 Celsium. Depending on temperature, they can emit deep red, orange, yellow and almost white light. So, for yellow flame to occur, black particles must be present. In case of carbon containing fuels the particles are usually carbon particles (soot). Soot is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing molecules. Now, let’s see the difference between ethanol and methanol, specifically, at amount of oxygen required for combustion of same volume of vapors. Equations of burning:

2CH3OH + 3O2 = 2CO2 + 4H2O

C2H5OH + 3O2 = 2 CO2 + 3H2O

As it can be seen, same volume of vapors in case of ethanol requires twice as much of air to fully burn, so in case of ethanol incomplete combustion is more common. It is even more common in case of larger molecules, say, higher hydrocarbons, like solid paraffines used in some candles. In case the flame of organic substance has right amount of oxygen (incoming fuel-air mixture contains proper amount of air), it burns with pale flame. It is easily observable in case of hand propane torches, where user regulates amount of air in incoming mixture, depending on amount of air allowed, it is possible to have bright yellow or pale blue flame and everything in between.

The pale blue emission has completely different nature, it is atomic emission of excited radicals and molecules. For example, it is known that

CH particle emits a blue light.

Yellow flame may also happen if another source of particles is available and the temperature is right. For example,

CuO+Al mixture burns explosively, producing bright yellow flash. However, if temperature is too high, bright white flame should be observed. Indeed, magnesium burns with blinding white flame, especially if it is premixed with solid oxidizer (potassium nitrate).

Now, atomic/molecular emission is usually low in common flames. However, even small amounts of sodium in flame makes it bright yellow even if it normally almost colorless. Some other elements may color flame into different colors, ranging from pale violet to deep red. This, however, is a different situation from what you considered.

Fastest gaming mobile phone

Asus rog 3 mobile phone

Asus ROG Phone 3 With Snapdragon 865+ SoC, 6,000mAh Battery 

Asus ROG Phone 3 has up to 256GB of onboard storage.

  • The Asus phone will go on sale in India starting August
  • Asus ROG Phone 3 comes with AirTrigger 3 ultrasonic buttons

Asus ROG Phone 3 has been launched as the company’s latest gaming smartphone. The new model has almost the same dimensions of last year’s ROG Phone 2, yet it comes with various hardware-level upgrades. The Asus ROG Phone 3 comes with Qualcomm Snapdragon 865+ SoC and includes a GameCool 3 heat dissipating system with a redesigned copper 3D vapour chamber and a larger graphite film over what’s available on the existing model. The gaming phone also features AirTrigger 3 ultrasonic buttons and includes dual, front-firing speakers. The ROG Phone 3 also comes with a clip-on AeroActive Cooler 3 accessory that has a kickstand and built-in fan to reduce the surface temperature by up to 4-degree Celsius.

In this mobile phone, it is very special and according to the mobile phone.
Today’s date is the best mobile phone in terms of gaming.

This is such a brilliant mobile phone .

in gaming process the triggers are inbuilt in this mobile phone.

They have 2 charging ports .

  • 1 is bottom of the mobile phone.
  • 2 is left side of the mobile phone.


Asus ROG Phone 3

हिंदी में पढ़े ❯BY ASUSView Photos (8)FROMRs. 49,999 (Out of Stock)Asus ROG Phone 3 is currently not available in any online store.  Add to Compare Notify when available

Key Specs  Android v10 (Q)Performance

  • Octa core (3.1 GHz, Single Core + 2.42 GHz, Tri core + 1.8 GHz, Quad core)
  • Snapdragon 865 Plus
  • 8 GB RAM


  • 6.59 inches (16.74 cm)
  • 391 PPI, AMOLED
  • 144 Hz Refresh Rate


  • 64 MP + 13 MP + 5 MP Triple Primary Cameras
  • LED Flash
  • 24 MP Front Camera, Screen flash


  • 6000 mAh
  • Hyper Charging 4.0
  • USB Type-C Port

Key Specs

ProcessorQualcomm Snapdragon 865 Plus
Rear Camera64 MP + 13 MP + 5 MP
Front Camera24 MP
Battery6000 mAh
Display6.59 inches


Launch DateJuly 22, 2020 (Official)
ModelROG Phone 3
Operating SystemAndroid v10 (Q)
SIM Slot(s)Dual SIM, GSM+GSM
SIM SizeSIM1: Nano
SIM2: Nano
Network5G: Supported by device (network not rolled-out in India),
4G: Available (supports Indian bands),
3G: Available, 2G: Available
Fingerprint Sensoryes
Quick Chargingyes


Height171 mm
Width78 mm
Thickness9.85 mm
Weight240 grams
Build Material
Back: Gorilla Glass


Screen Size6.59 inches (16.74 cm)
Screen Resolution1080 x 2340 pixels
Aspect Ratio19.5:9
Bezel-less displayyes
Pixel Density391 ppi
Display TypeAMOLED
Refresh Rate144 Hz
Screen ProtectionCorning Gorilla Glass v6
Touch Screenyes Capacitive Touchscreen, Multi-touch
Screen to Body Ratio (calculated)79.75 %


ChipsetQualcomm Snapdragon 865 Plus
ProcessorOcta core (3.1 GHz, Single core, Kryo 585 + 2.42 GHz, Tri core, Kryo 585 + 1.8 GHz, Quad core, Kryo 585)
Architecture64 bit
GraphicsAdreno 650

Neil harbisson

Neil Harbisson (born 27 July 1984) is a Spanish-born BritishIrish cyborg artist and activist for transpecies rights based in New York City.He is best known for being the first person in the world with an antennaimplanted in his skull and for being legally recognized as a cyborg by a government. His antenna sends audible vibrations through his skull to report information to him. This includes measurements of electromagnetic radiation, phone calls, and music, as well as videos or images which are translated into audible vibrations.His WiFi-enabled antenna also allows him to receive signals and data from satellites.

Since 2004, international media has described him as the world’s first cyborg or the world’s first cyborg artist.In 2010, he co-founded the Cyborg Foundation, an international organisation that defends cyborg rights, promotes cyborg art and supports people who want to become cyborgs.In 2017, he co-founded the Transpecies Society, an association that gives voice to people with non-human identities, raises awareness of the challenges transpecies face, advocates for the freedom of self-design and offers the development of new senses and organs in community.

Early life

Harbisson is the son of a Spanish mother and a Northern Irish father. He was born with achromat vision.He grew up in Barcelonawhere he studied piano and began to compose music at the age of 11.At 16, he studied fine art at the Institut Alexandre Satorras, where he was given special permission to use no colour in his work.His early works are all in black and white.

As a teenager, Harbisson lived in a tree for several days in Mataró to save three trees from being cut down. His initiative was supported by over 3,000 people who signed a petition to maintain the trees. After days of protest, the city hall announced the trees would not be cut.

At the age of 19, he moved to England to study music composition at Dartington College of Arts.


Harbisson defines his work as cyborg art, the art of designing new senses and new organs, and the art of merging with them.[42] He compares his practice with sculpture; his aim is to mould his mind in order to create new perceptions of reality.[43] He defines this particular branch of cyborg art as perceptionism, the art of designing new perceptions of reality and sees it as a post-art movement because its practicality makes no distinction between the artist, the work of art, the space where it exists and the audience. Harbisson is the artist, the work of art, the space where it exists, and the only one in the audience.[44]

Sense of Colour: Cyborg AntennaEdit

The Cyborg Antenna is a sensory system created to extend color perception. It is implanted and osseointegrated in Harbisson’s head and it sprouts from within his occipital bone. It has been permanently attached to Harbisson’s head since 2004 and it allows him to feel and hear colours as audible vibrations inside his head, including colours invisible to the human eye such as infrareds and ultraviolets. The antenna also allows internet connection and therefore the reception of colour from other sensors or from satellites. Harbisson began developing the antenna at college in 2003 with Adam Montandon and it was upgraded by Peter Kese and Matias Lizana, among others. The antenna implant surgery was repeatedly rejected by bioethical committees but went underway regardless by anonymous doctors.

Internet of Senses: Harbisson has given permission to five friends, one in each continent, to send colours, images, videos or sounds directly into his head. If he receives colours while asleep his friends can colour and alter his dreams. The first public demonstration of a skull-transmitted image was broadcast live on Al Jazeera‘s chat show The Stream. The first person to make a phone call directly into his skull was Ruby Wax.

Sense of Time: Solar CrownEdit

The Solar Crown is a sensory device for the sense of time. A rotating point of heat takes 24 hours to slowly orbit around Harbisson’s head.When he feels the point of heat in the middle of his forehead it is midday solar timein London (longitude 0°), when the heat reaches his right ear it is midday in New Orleans (longitude 90°). Harbisson’s aim is to take Albert Einstein‘s theory of time relativity into practice by creating time illusions. When his brain gets accustomed to the passage of time on his head, he will explore if he can modify his perception of time by altering the speed of rotation.Harbisson states that in the same way we can create optical illusions because we have eyes for the sense of sight, we should be able to create time illusions if we have an organ for the sense of time. If time illusions work, he will then be able to stretch or control his perception of time, age, and time travel.

Transdental Communication System: Bluetooth ToothEdit

The transdental communication system is composed by two teeth, each containing a bluetooth enabled button and a mini vibrator.Whenever the button is pressed it sends a vibration to the other person’s tooth. One tooth was installed in Harbisson’s mouth and the other tooth in Moon Ribas‘s mouth. Both Harbisson and Ribas know how to communicate in morse code, therefore they are able to communicate from tooth to tooth.The first demonstration of the system was presented in São Paulo.

Kowloon walled city

Kowloon Walled City was an ungoverned, densely populated settlement in Kowloon CityHong Kong. Originally a Chinese military fort, the Walled City became an enclave after the New Territories were leased to the UK by China in 1898. Its population increased dramatically following the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong during World War II. By 1990, the walled city contained 50,000 residents[1][2] within its 2.6-hectare (6.4-acre) borders. From the 1950s to the 1970s, it was controlled by local triads and had high rates of prostitutiongambling and drug abuse.

In January 1987, the Hong Kong municipal government announced plans to demolish the walled city. After an arduous eviction process, demolition began in March 1993 and was completed in April 1994. Kowloon Walled City Park opened in December 1995 and occupies the area of the former Walled City. Some historical artefacts from the walled city, including its yamen building and remnants of its southern gate, have been preserved there.

Military outpost

The history of the walled city can be traced back to the Song Dynasty (960–1279), when an outpost was set up to manage the trade of salt. Little took place for hundreds of years afterward, although 30 guards were stationed there in 166A small coastal fort was established around 1810 after Chinese forces abandoned Tung Lung Fort.In 1842, during Qing Emperor Daoguang‘s reign, Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Nanjing. As a result, the Qing authorities felt it necessary to improve the fort in order to rule the area and check further British influence. The improvements, including the formidable defensive wall, were completed in 1847. The walled city was captured by rebels during the Taiping Rebellion in 1854 before being retaken a few weeks later.The present Walled City’s “Dapeng Association House” forms the remnants of what was previously Lai Enjue‘s garrison.

The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory of 1898 handed additional parts of Hong Kong (the New Territories) to Britain for 99 years, but excluded the walled city, which at the time had a population of roughly 700. China was allowed to continue to keep officials there as long as they did not interfere with the defence of British Hong Kong. The following year, the governor, Sir Henry Blake, suspected that the viceroy of Canton was using troops to aid resistance to the new arrangements. On 14 April 1899, British forces attacked the Walled City, only to find the viceroy’s soldiers gone, leaving behind only the mandarin and 150 residents.The Qing dynasty ended its rule in 1912, leaving the walled city to the British.

Though the British claimed ownership of the walled city, they did little with it over the following few decades. The Protestant church established an old people’s home in the old “yamen” (Chinese administrative office) as well as a school and an almshouse in other former offices. Aside from such institutions, however, the walled city became a mere curiosity for British colonials and tourists to visit; it was labelled as “Chinese Town” in a 1915 map. In 1933, the Hong Kong authorities announced plans to demolish most of the decaying walled city’s buildings, compensating the 436 squatters that lived there with new homes. By 1940 only the yamen, the school and one house remained. During the World War II occupation of Hong Kong, the Japanese occupying forces demolished the city’s wall and used the stone to expand the nearby Kai Tak Airport.

Urban settlement

After Japan’s surrender in 1945, Chinaannounced its intent to reclaim the walled city. Refugees fleeing the Chinese Civil War post-1945 poured into Hong Kong, and 2,000 squatters occupied the walled city by 1947. After a failed attempt to drive them out in 1948, the British adopted a ‘hands-off’ policy in most matters concerning the walled city.

In January 1950, a fire broke out that destroyed over 2,500 huts, home to nearly 3,500 families and 17,000 total people.[7] The disaster highlighted the need for proper fire prevention in the largely wooden-built squatter areas, complicated by the lack of political ties with the colonial and Chinese governments.[8]The ruins gave new arrivals to the walled city the opportunity to build anew, causing speculation that the fire may have been intentionally set.[8][9]

With no government enforcement from the Chinese or the British aside from a few raids by the Royal Hong Kong Police, the walled city became a haven for crime and drugs. It was only during a 1959 trial for a murder that occurred within the Walled City that the Hong Kong government was ruled to have jurisdiction there. By that time, however, the walled city was virtually ruled by the organised crime syndicates known as triads.[3]

Beginning in the 1950s, triad groups such as the 14K and Sun Yee On gained a stranglehold on the walled city’s numerous brothels, gaming parlours, and opium dens. The Walled City had become such a haven for criminals that police would venture into it only in large groups.It was not until 1973 and 1974, when a series of more than 3,500 police raids resulted in over 2,500 arrests and over 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb) of seized drugs, that the triads’ power began to wane. With public support, particularly from younger residents, the continued raids gradually eroded drug use and violent crime. In 1983, the police commander of Kowloon City District declared the Walled City’s crime rate to be under control.

Bill Morgan is the luckiest person in the world

Australian man dies, comes back to life, and wins the lottery twice!

Australian Bill Morgan is a man who truly defied the odds. He cheated death – surviving a horrible car crash and heart attack, before falling into a coma – and proceeded to win the lottery not once, but two times. He went from nearly losing it all, to gaining more than he could ever imagine.

As far as lottery stories go, this is definitely one of our favorites. Let’s start at the beginning, where Bill’s luck seemed like it had completely run out.

Once you’re done reading the article we recommend you check out our guide on best lottery prediction software, tools that will help increase your odds of picking winning numbers dramatically.

australian bill Morgan dies

Back in 1998, Australian truck driver Bill Morgan, was involved in a truck accident that nearly crushed him. He miraculously survived the crash, but suffered a heart attack as a result. He was then rushed to the emergency room, and given a drug that triggered a severe allergic reaction in his body – ultimately causing his heart to stop beating.

Bill Morgan had died. But in an amazing twist of fate, that wasn’t the end for him.

After being clinically dead for more than 14 minutes, Bill was revived, but remained comatose. He was in a vegetative state for more than a week, and doctors advised his family to take him off life support. It’s a good thing they didn’t, though.

Bill morgan’s first miracle

Miraculously after 12 days, Bill woke up and eventually made a complete recovery. He was very fortunate to have walked away from the ordeal without any serious health problems.

With a new lease on life, Bill was optimistic about the future. He eventually got a new job and mustered up the courage to propose to his girlfriend Lisa Wells. She happily accepted.

Bill morgan’s lottery win

Some time after his engagement, Bill Morgan decided to try his luck at the lottery. He purchased a scratch-off ticket and instantly won a car – worth about A$17,000 at the time. Bill was expectedly overjoyed.

This lucky turn of events soon caught the interest of a Melbourne news station. They decided to cover Bill’s story, and this is where things get really interesting.

While filming a reenactment of his win, Bill purchased another scratch-off ticket that would prove to be his biggest surprise yet: He had just won A$250k, right on live television! #bestreenactmentever

“I just won two hundred and fifty thousand,” Bill exclaims. “I’m not joking,” he continues. Visibly emotional, he calls Lisa Wells to tell her about the big news.

Atlas moth

Attacus atlas, the atlas moth, is a large saturniid moth endemic to the forests of Asia. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

The atlas moth is one of the largest lepidopterans, with a wingspan measuring up to 24 cm (9.4 in) and a wing surface area of about 160 cm2 (~25 in2).It is only surpassed in wingspan by the white witch(Thysania agrippina) and Attacus caesar, and in wing surface area by the Hercules moth(Coscinocera hercules). As in most Lepidoptera, females are noticeably larger and heavier than males, while males have broader antennae.

The body is disproportionately small compared to the wings. The upperside of the wings are reddish brown with a pattern of black, white, pink, and purple lines and triangular, scale-less windows bordered in black. The undersides of the wings are paler. Both forewings have a prominent extension at the tip, marked so as to resemble the head of a snake, a resemblance which is exaggerated by movements of the wings when the moth is confronted by potential predators.

The atlas moth has no mouth, and they do not eat once they have emerged from the cocoon, relying on fat storage for energy. Every flight takes valuable energy and can take days off their already short lives, as it has a very short life span of only one to two weeks.They conserve energy by flying as little as possible. A female will wait for a male to come along and be fertilised, lay eggs and die.


Their habitat is primarily dry tropical forestssecondary forests, and shrublands across South AsiaEast Asia, and Southeast Asia, including Borneo, though one specimen, an adult female, was found in 2012 in Ramsbottom, England after it landed on a windowsill, and presumed to have escaped from a private collection.


Atlas moths are named after either Atlas, the titan of Greek mythology (due to their size), or their map-like wing patterns. In Hong Kong, the Cantonese means “snake’s head moth”, referring to the prominent extension of the forewing which bears resemblance to the head of a snake.

Similar taxa

The term “Atlas moth” is sometimes used mistakenly as a name for any species in the genus Attacus, of which there are over 20 named species and subspecies. Attacus taprobanis native to southern India and Sri Lanka is very similar in morphology to the much more widely distributed Attacus atlas. It was once considered a subspecies of A. atlas.A few New World species can be mistaken for Atlas moths, specifically members of the genus Rothschildia. Very similar in appearance to the Asian Atlas moth, Rothschildia aurota is one of the largest members of its genus and a Neotropicalrelative.

Hurricane Katrina

Hearing the name Katrina, you must be thinking that it is Katrina who is an actress. Now we tell you a truth, when Katrina Kaif started to know the world, people named her daughters Katrina, due to which the girls in the world were named Katrina and due to time one day Hurricane came and she was named Katrina. Scientist had named Katrina and after this Hurricane no one named her daughters Katrina.

Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 tropical cyclone that occurred in August 2005, which caused $125 billion in damage, particularly in the city of New Orleans and the surrounding areas, and over 1,200 deaths. It is the costliest tropical cyclone on record, tying with Hurricane Harvey in 2017. The storm was the third major hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, and the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record to make landfall in the contiguous United States, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricaneHurricane Camillein 1969, and Hurricane Michael in 2018.

Katrina originated on August 23, 2005 as a tropical depression from the merger of a tropical wave and the remnants of Tropical Depression Ten. Early the following day, the depression intensified into a tropical storm as it headed generally westward toward Florida, strengthening into a hurricane two hours before making landfall at Hallandale Beach on August 25. After briefly weakening to tropical storm strength over southern Florida, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August 26 and began to rapidly intensify. The storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico[3]before weakening to Category 3 strength at its second landfall on August 29 over southeast Louisiana and Mississippi.

Flooding, caused largely as a result of fatal engineering flaws in the flood protection system known as levees around the city of New Orleans, precipitated most of the loss of lives.Eventually, 80% of the city, as well as large tracts of neighboring parishes, were inundated for weeks.The flooding also destroyed most of New Orleans’ transportation and communication facilities, leaving tens of thousands of people who had not evacuated the city prior to landfall stranded with little access to food, shelter or basic necessities. The scale of the disaster in New Orleans provoked massive national and international response efforts; federal, local and private rescue operations evacuated displaced persons out of the city over the following weeks. Multiple investigations in the aftermath of the storm concluded that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which had designed and built the region’s levees decades earlier, was responsible for the failure of the flood-control systems,though federal courts later ruled that the Corps could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the Flood Control Act of 1928.[8]

The emergency response from federal, state and local governments was widely criticized, resulting in the resignations of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) director Michael D. Brown and New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) Superintendent Eddie Compass. Many other government officials were criticized for their responses, especially New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco, and President George W. Bush, while several agencies, including the United States Coast Guard (USCG), National Hurricane Center(NHC), and National Weather Service (NWS), were commended for their actions. The NHC was especially applauded for providing accurate forecasts well in advance.

Metereological history

Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23, 2005, as the result of the merger of a tropical wave and the remnants of Tropical Depression Ten four days earlier. The storm strengthened into Tropical Storm Katrina on the morning of August 24. The tropical storm moved towards Florida and became a hurricane only two hours before making landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura on the morning of August 25. The storm weakened over land, but it regained hurricane status about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico, and it continued strengthening over open waters. On August 27, the storm reached Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, becoming the third major hurricane of the season. An eyewall replacement cycle disrupted the intensification but caused the storm to nearly double in size.Thereafter, Katrina rapidly intensified over the “unusually warm” waters of the Loop Current from a Category 3 hurricane to a Category 5 hurricane in just nine hours.

After attaining Category 5 status on the morning of August 28, Katrina reached its peak strength at 1800 UTC, with maximum sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 902 mbar(26.6 inHg). The pressure measurement made Katrina the fifth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record at the time, only to be surpassed by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma later in the season; it was also the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexicoat the time, before Rita broke the record.The hurricane subsequently weakened due to another eyewall replacement cycle, and Katrina made its second landfall at 1110 UTC on August 29, as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana. At landfall, hurricane-force winds extended outward 120 miles (190 km) from the center and the storm’s central pressure was 920 mbar (27 inHg). After moving over southeastern Louisiana and Breton Sound, it made its third and final landfall near the Louisiana–Mississippi border with 120 mph (190 km/h) sustained winds, still at Category 3 intensity. Katrina maintained strength well into Mississippi, finally losing hurricane strength more than 150 miles (240 km) inland near Meridian, Mississippi. It was downgraded to a tropical depression near Clarksville, Tennessee; its remnants were absorbed by a cold front in the eastern Great Lakes region on August 31. The resulting extratropical storm moved rapidly to the northeast and affected eastern Canada.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

On the afternoon of August 26, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) realized that Katrina had yet to make the turn toward the Florida Panhandle and ended up revising the predicted track of the storm from the panhandle to the Mississippi coast.The National Weather Service’s New Orleans/Baton Rouge office issued a vividly worded bulletin on August 28 predicting that the area would be “uninhabitable for weeks” after “devastating damage” caused by Katrina, which at that time rivaled the intensity of Hurricane Camille.During video conferences involving the president later that day and on August 29, NHC director Max Mayfield expressed concern that Katrina might push its storm surge over the city’s levees and flood walls. In one conference, he stated, “I do not think anyone can tell you with confidence right now whether the levees will be topped or not, but that’s obviously a very, very great concern.”Additionally, the National Hurricane Center issued many tropical cyclone warnings and watchesthroughout the duration of Katrina:

Darvaza gas crater

The Darvaza gas crater (Turkmen: Garagum ýalkymy),also known as the Door to Hellor Gates of Hell, is a natural gas fieldcollapsed into a cavern located in DerwezeTurkmenistan.Geologists intentionally set it on fire to prevent the spread of methane gas, and it is thought to have been burning continuously since 1971. The gas crater has a total area of 5,350 m2. Its diameter is 69 m (226 ft), and its depth is 30 m (98 ft).

The Turkmen government hopes that the crater will become a popular tourist attraction.The surrounding area is also popular for wild desert camping.


The gas crater is located near the village of Derweze, also known as Darvaza. It is in the middle of the Karakum Desert, about 260 kilometres (160 mi) north of Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan. The gas reserve found here is one of the largest in the world. The name “Door to Hell” was given to the field by the locals, referring to the fire, boiling mud, and orange flames in the large crater, which has a diameter of 70 metres (230 ft).The hot spots range over an area with a width of 60 metres (200 ft) and to a depth of about 20 metres (66 ft).


According to Turkmen geologist Anatoly Bushmakin, the site was identified by Sovietengineers in 1971. It was originally thought to be a substantial oil field site.The engineers set up a drilling rig and operations to assess the quantity of oil available at the site. Soon after the preliminary survey found a natural gas pocket, the ground beneath the drilling rig and camp collapsed into a wide crater and was buried.

Expecting dangerous releases of poisonous gases from the cavern into nearby towns, the engineers considered it advisable to burn the gas off. It was estimated that the gas would burn out within a few weeks, but it has instead continued to burn for 49 years and is expected to keep on burning.

The early years of the crater’s history are uncertain: local geologists say the collapse into a crater happened in the 1960s, and the gases were not set on fire until the 1980s. There are, however, no records available of either the Soviet or Turkmen version of events.

In April 2010, the President of TurkmenistanGurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, visited the site and ordered that the hole should be closed. In 2013, he declared the part of the Karakum Desert with the crater a nature reserve.In 2019, he appeared on state television doing doughnuts around the crater to disprove rumours of his death.[11]

The crater was featured in an episode of the National Geographic Channel series Die Trying. In the July 16, 2014 episode “Crater of Fire”, explorer George Kourounis became the first person to set foot at the bottom, gathering samples of extremophilemicroorganisms.An edited photograph of the crater was also released as publicity for the then-upcoming 2014 Godzilla film, with the image depicting MONARCH agents and vehicles investigating the site.

Effects on future development of gas

On President Berdimuhamedow’s April 2010 visit, he recommended that measures be taken to limit the crater’s influence on the development of other natural gas fields in the area.At that time, Turkmenistan announced plans to increase its production of natural gas, intending to increase its export of gas to many countries such as PakistanChinaIndiaIranRussia and Western Europe, from its then yearly production level to a new production level of 225 billion cubic metres (7.9 trillion cubic feet) by 2030.

Bob lazar

Robert Scott Lazar (/ləˈzɑːr/; born January 26, 1959) is an American conspiracy theorist who claims to have been hired in the late 1980s to reverse-engineer purported extraterrestrialtechnology at what he described as a secret site called “S-4”. Lazar alleges that this subsidiary installation is located several kilometres south of the United States Air Force facility popularly known as Area 51.

Lazar claims he examined an alien craft that ran on an antimatter reactor powered by element 115, which at the time had not yet been synthesized. He also claims to have read US government briefing documents that described alien involvement in human affairs over the past 10,000 years. Lazar’s claims resulted in bringing added public attention to Area 51 and fueling conspiracy theories surrounding its classified activities. He admits that he has no evidence to support his core claim of alien technology.

Lazar’s story has since been analyzed and rejected by skeptics and some ufologists. Universities from which he claims to hold degrees show no record of him, and supposed former workplaces have disavowed him. In 1990, he was convicted for his involvement in a prostitution ring and again in 2006 for selling illegal chemicals.


Lazar attended Pierce Junior College in Los Angeles.He filed for bankruptcy in 1986, where he described himself as a self-employed film processor. Lazar owns and operates United Nuclear Scientific Equipment and Supplies, which sells a variety of materials and chemicals.


Lazar has achieved notoriety as an Area 51conspiracy theorist. In May 1989, he appeared in an interview with investigative reporter George Knapp on Las Vegas TV station KLAS, under the pseudonym “Dennis” and with his face hidden, to discuss his purported employment at “S-4”, a subsidiary facility he claimed exists near the Nellis Air Force Base installation known as Area 51. Lazar said the S-4 facility was adjacent to Papoose Lake, which is located south of the main Area 51 facility at Groom Lake. He claimed the site consisted of concealed aircraft hangars built into a mountainside. Lazar said that his job was to help with the reverse engineering of one of nine flying saucers, which he alleged were extraterrestrial in origin. He claims one of the flying saucers, the one he coined the “Sport Model”, was manufactured out of a metallic substance similar in appearance and touch to stainless steel. In a subsequent interview that November, Lazar appeared unmasked and under his own name.

Lazar claimed that the propulsion of the studied vehicle was fueled by the chemical element with atomic number 115, or “E115”, which at the time was provisionally named ununpentium and had not yet been artificially created (it was first synthesized in 2003 and later named moscovium).He said that the propulsion system relied on a stable isotope of E115, which allegedly generates a gravity wave that allowed the vehicle to fly and to evade visual detection by bending lightaround it. No stable isotopes of moscovium have yet been synthesized; all have proven extremely radioactive, decaying in a few hundred milliseconds.

In addition, Lazar claimed that during his joining the program, he read briefing documents describing the historical involvement of Earth for the past 10,000 years with extraterrestrial beings described as grey aliens from a planet orbiting the twin binary star system Zeta Reticuli. The Zeta Reticuli system was previously claimed by Barney and Betty Hill as the origin of aliens they allegedly encountered.As of September 2019, no extrasolar planets have been found in the Zeta Reticuli system.

Lazar claims to have earned a master’s degree in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and a master’s degree in electronic technology from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech); however, there are no records of Lazar attending either MIT or Caltech.His supposed employment at a Nellis Air Force Base subsidiary has also been discredited by skeptics, as well as by the United States Air Force itself.

A 1982 article in the Alamogordo Daily Newsfeatured Lazar’s jet powered car which reportedly achieved speeds of 200 mph, describing him as “a physicist at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility“, however, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has disavowed him.Lazar alleges that his records have been erased, however skeptics, such as Donald R. ProtheroStanton T. Friedman and Timothy D. Callahan have found this to be implausible. According to Prothero, “He was employed not by the government but rather as a technician working for a private company that contracted work at Los Alamos.”

Lazar’s story has drawn significant media attention, controversy, supporters, and detractors. Lazar admits that he has no evidence to support his core claim of alien technology.

Criminal conviction

In 1990, Lazar was arrested for aiding and abetting a prostitution ring. This was reduced to felony pandering, to which he pleaded guilty. He was ordered to do 150 hours of community service, stay away from brothels, and undergo psychotherapy.

In 2006, Lazar and his wife Joy White were charged with violating the Federal Hazardous Substances Act for shipping restricted chemicals across state lines. The charges stemmed from a 2003 raid on United Nuclear’s business offices, where chemical sales records were examined.United Nuclear pleaded guilty to three criminal counts of introducing into interstate commerce, and aiding and abetting the introduction into interstate commerce, banned hazardous substances. In 2007, United Nuclear was fined $7,500 for violating a law prohibiting the sale of chemicals and components used to make illegal fireworks.

Desert blast festival

Lazar and long-time friend Gene Huff run Desert Blast, an annual festival in the Nevada desert for pyrotechnicsenthusiasts Starting in 1987, but only formally named in 1991, the name was inspired by Operation Desert Storm. The festival features homemade explosives, rockets, jet-powered vehicles, and other pyrotechnics, with the aim of emphasizing the fun aspect of chemistry and physics.